Research LOG


September 24th 2009:
  • Class Day One: nothing out of the ordinary.
  • Research Topic: Still deciding and looking for ideas.
    • Caffeine how it works and the affects on the human body.
    [Consider substructure searching for molecules related to caffeine, find the biomolecules affected by the drug JCB]

September 28th 2009:
  • Research preformed on Caffeine as a whole on Wikipedia in hopes of beginning to locate a more specific topic on the subject of Caffeine
    • Dead end located on Wikipedia
      • Theophylline and Theobromine seemed to be two products closely related to caffeine in structure. They are found with caffeine in Coffee bean and other sources. Current WIkipedia research does not shed them in a light that denotes them as primary causes of any nervous system stimulation. [The mechanism of action section on Wikipedia does have a lot of details - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine JCB]
        • Should be noted that both compounds are produced in the liver when digesting Caffeine however currently still not a point of interest.
  • Xanthine - is the class of compound that all three compounds are located under. Research into the class lead me to a dead end with a broader topic instead of a more concise topic
  • Next Step:
    • Read further into the Caffeine Wikipedia for other routes to take. Currently considering to look into how it interacts with the body to cause its affects and research from there. Possibly see what receptors cause its affects.

October 1st 2009
:

  • Wikipedia Research:
    • Caffeine works by acting as a Adenosine receptor antagonist in the human neural system.
      • The Adenosine receptors affect things in the body such as blood flow.
      • Caffeine specifically affects the A1 and A2B Adenosine receptors.
      • Wiki - Caffeine - Source - #51
  • Next Step:
    • Research further into the Caffeine affects of interesting with the Adenosine receptors
    • Research into how this takes place
    • Check Sci-Finder

October 26th 2009:

  • After Hiatus due to other classes
  • Wiki - Caffeine - Source - #51
    • After finally fully reading the above source, some confusion and direction is found. The caffeine molecule interferes with Adenosine receptors A1 and A2a. This contradicts the earlier statement that A1 and A2b were the two receptors. In this case the source article will be trusted.
      • It was also found that according to this source that the blockade A2a receptor functions as the source of the stimulant sensation caffeine gives the user
      • The paper has two sources that talk about the blockade of A1 and A2a selectively showing that A2a is the source of increased locomotion.
        • The following three papers, now need to be located and read, they may be important for explaining why the A2a receptor produces the stimulation that people enjoy.
          • [88] Logan L., Seale T. W. and Carney J. M. (1986) Inherent differences
            in sensitivity to methylxanthines among inbred mice.
            Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 24: 1281–1286
          • [99] Bruns R. F., Fergus J. H., Badger E. W., Bristol J. A., Santay L.
            A., Hartman J. D. et al. (1987) Binding of the A1-selective
            adenosine antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine to
            rat brain membranes. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmac.
            335: 59–63
          • [83] Svenningsson P., Nomikos G. G., Ongini E. and Fredholm B.
            B. (1997) Antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors underlies
            the behavioural activating effect of caffeine and is associated
            with reduced expression of messenger RNA for NGFI-A and
            CMLS, Cell. Mol. Life Sci. Vol. 61, 2004 Review Article 869
            NGFI-B in caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience
            79: 753–764
  • Revision of topic
    • The Caffeine High enjoyed by many is caused by the blockade of Adenosine receptor A2a
      • Summary: Essentially a paper talking about the exact stimulant affects that result from this blackade on the receptor, both good and bad.
      • Things needed for the paper
        • Paper talking broad spectrum responses to consumption of caffeine
          • Do I need multiple sources on this? I have Wiki as a tertiary...I do plan to have at least one more.
  • Specific papers on A2a blockage by caffeine
October 26th 2009 Part II:

November 9nd 2009:

November 10nd + 15th 2009:
  • Began finding more sources and used the following source as a starting point, by looking up some of its numerous sources
  • [S.P]Karcz-Kubicha, M., K. Antoniou, et al. (2003). "Involvement of Adenosine A1 and A2A Receptors in the Motor Effects of Caffeine after its Acute and Chronic Administration." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(7): 1281-1291.
  • [S.T.]Nehlig, A., J. L. Daval, et al. (1992). "CAFFEINE AND THE CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM - MECHANISMS OF ACTION, BIOCHEMICAL, METABOLIC AND PSYCHOSTIMULANT EFFECTS." Brain Research Reviews 17(2): 139-169.
    • [93]Cardinali, D. P. (1980). "Methylxanthines: possible mechanisms of action in brain." Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 1(2): 405-407.
    • [207]Fredholm, B. B. (1979). "Are methylxanthine effects due to antagonism of endogenous adenosine?" Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 1(1): 129-132.
    • [245]Green, R. M. and G. L. Stiles (1986). "Chronic caffeine ingestion sensitizes the A1 adenosine receptor-adenylate cyclase system in rat cerebral cortex." The Journal of Clinical Investigation 77(1): 222-227.
    • [364]Lin, Y. and J. W. Phillis (1990). "Chronic caffeine exposure enhances adenosinergic inhibition of cerebral cortical neurons." Brain Research 520(1-2): 322-323.
    • [514]Robertson, D., D. Wade, et al. (1981). "Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man." The Journal of Clinical Investigation 67(4): 1111-1117.
    • [534]SATTIN, A. and T. W. RALL (1970). "The Effect of Adenosine and Adenine Nucleotides on the Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Phosphate Content of Guinea Pig Cerebral Cortex Slices." Molecular Pharmacology 6(1): 13-23.
November 17th 2009:
  • [DOI]Daly, J. (2007). "Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact." Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 64(16): 2153-2169.
November 23th 2009:
  • [DOI]James, J. and P. Rogers (2005). "Effects of caffeine on performance and mood: withdrawal reversal is the most plausible explanation." Psychopharmacology 182(1): 1-8.
  • [DOI]Evans, S. and R. Griffiths (1992). "Caffeine tolerance and choice in humans." Psychopharmacology 108(1): 51-59.
  • [DOI]Kopf, S. R., A. Melani, et al. (1999). "Adenosine and memory storage." Psychopharmacology 146(2): 214-219.
  • [DOI]Shapiro, R. (2007). "Caffeine and headaches." Neurological Sciences 28(0): S179-S183.
  • [DOI]Addicott, M. A., L. L. Yang, et al. (2009). "The effect of daily caffeine use on cerebral blood flow: How much caffeine can we tolerate?" Human Brain Mapping 30(10): 3102-3114.
  • [DOI]Alsene, K., J. Deckert, et al. (2003). "Association Between A2a Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Caffeine-Induced Anxiety." Neuropsychopharmacology 28(9): 1694-1702.

At this point I have a total of Twenty DOI linked Articles.